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Azadirachtin

Azadirachtin (CAS No 11141-17-6) is one of the herbal neem product or Neem Extract. Azadirachtin (Technical) is used as the basic raw material in the formulations of Neem based biopesticides, herbal preparations and veterinary care products.

Azadirachtin based pesticides

Azadirachtin based pesticides are one of the most effective broad spectrum biopesticides. Azadirachtin together with other constituents of Neem seeds exhibits insect repellant, antifeedant and insect growth regulator properties.

Product Catalogue:-

Azadirachtin Technical (Purity 19-23%)- Azadiarachtin is very potent insect repellent, antifeedant and an insect growth regulator and it affects more than 600 species of insects. No resistance reported , no pest resurgence. Ideal for organic farming provides help in IPM (Integrated pest management) solutions. Azadirachtin provides a broad spectrum pest control for fruits, vegetables and plantation crops, greenhouses, turf, outdoor ornamentals and agricultural crops such as sugarcane, paddy, cotton and tea.

Azadirachtin EC 1% (10,000ppm):- Ecofriendly broad spectrum Botanical Insecticide, emulsifiable concentrate easily dispersed in water.

Azadirachtin EC 3% (30,000ppm):- Ecofriendly broad spectrum Botanical Insecticide, emulsifiable concentrate easily dispersed in water.

NEEM ( Azadirachta indica)

Azadirachta indica, also known as Neem. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil and some other benificial compounds.

we work on :

  1. Azadiractin
  2. Neem oil
  3. Nem cake
1) Azadirachtin

A chemical compound belonging to the limonoid group, is a secondary metabolite present in neem seeds. It is a highly oxidized tetranortriterpenoid which boasts a plethora of oxygen bearing functional groups, including an enol ether, acetal, hemiacetal, tetra-substituted epoxide and a variety of carboxylic esters.

Azadirachtin has a complex molecular structure; it presents both secondary and tertiary hydroxyl groups and a tetrahydrofuran ether in its molecular structure, alongside 16 stereogenic centres, 7 of which are tetrasubstituted.

Occurrence and use

Initially found to be active as a feeding inhibitor towards the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), it is now known to affect over 200 species of insect, by acting mainly as an antifeedant and growth disruptor, and as such it possesses considerable toxicity toward insects (LD50(S. littoralis): 15 ╬╝g/g). Azadirachtin fulfills many of the criteria needed for a good insecticide. Azadirachtin is biodegradable (it degrades within 100 hours when exposed to light and water) and shows very low toxicity to mammals (the LD50 in rats is > 3,540 mg/kg making it practically non-toxic).

This compound is found in the seeds (0.2 to 0.8 percent by weight) of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica (hence the prefix aza does not imply an aza compound, but refers to the scientific species name). Many more compounds, related to azadirachtin, are present in the seeds as well as in the leaves and the bark of the neem tree which also show strong biological activities among various pest insects .Effects of these preparations on beneficial arthropods are generally considered to be minimal. Some laboratory and field studies have found neem extracts to be compatible with biological control. Because pure neem oil contains other insecticidal and fungicidal compounds in addition to azadirachtin, it is generally mixed at a rate of 1 ounce per gallon (7.8 ml/l) of water when used as a pesticide.

2) Neem Oil

Neem oil varies in color; it can be golden yellow, yellowish brown, reddish brown, dark brown, greenish brown, or bright red. It has a rather strong odor that is said to combine the odours of peanut and garlic. It is composed mainly of triglycerides and contains many triterpenoid compounds, which are responsible for the bitter taste. It is hydrophobic in nature; in order to emulsify it in water for application purposes, it must be formulated with appropriate surfactants.

Azadirachtin is the most well known and studied triterpenoid in neem oil. The azadirachtin content of neem oil varies from 300ppm to over 2500ppm depending on the extraction technology and quality of the neem seeds crushed. Nimbin is another triterpenoid which has been credited with some of neem oil's properties as an antiseptic, antifungal, antipyretic and antihistamine.[1] Neem oil also contains several sterols, including (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol).

Uses

Neem oil is not used for cooking purposes. In India, it is used for preparing cosmetics (soap, hair products, body hygiene creams, hand creams) and in Ayurvedic, Unani and folklore traditional medicine, in the treatment of a wide range of afflictions. The most frequently reported indications in ancient Ayurvedic writings are skin diseases, inflammations and fevers, and more recently rheumatic disorders, insect repellent and insecticide effects.

Traditional Ayurvedic uses of neem include the treatment of acne, fever, leprosy, malaria, ophthalmia and tuberculosis. Various folk remedies for neem include use as an anthelmintic, antifeedant, antiseptic, diuretic, emmenagogue, contraceptive, febrifuge, parasiticide, pediculocide and insecticide. It has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of tetanus, urticaria, eczema, scrofula and erysipelas. Traditional routes of administration of neem extracts included oral, vaginal and topical use. Neem oil has anlist-style-type: lower-alpha; extensive history of human use in India and surrounding regions for a variety of therapeutic purposes. Puri (1999) has given an account of traditional uses and therapeutic indications and pharmacological studies of this oil, in his book on neem.

Formulations made of neem oil also find wide usage as a biopesticide for organic farming, as it repels a wide variety of pests including the mealy bug, beet armyworm, aphids, the cabbage worm, thrips, whiteflies, mites, fungus gnats, beetles, moth larvae, mushroom flies, leafminers, caterpillars, locust, nematodes and the Japanese beetle.

Neem oil is not known to be harmful to mammals, birds, earthworms or some beneficial insects such as butterflies, honeybees and ladybirds (ladybugs in US English) if it is not concentrated directly into their area of habitat or on their food source. It can be used as a household pesticide for ant, bedbug, cockroach, housefly, sand fly, snail, termite and mosquitoes both as repellent and larvicide. Neem oil also controls black spot, powdery mildew, anthracnose and rust fungi. Neem seed oil has also been used as a renewable source for the preparation of polymeric coatings. It has been converted into various polymeric resins, including polyesteramides and polyetheramides. These resins may be utilized further for preparation of polyurethane coatings.Smart polyurethane coatings have been prepared using neem oil by acetylation and further reaction with different diisocyanates.

3) Neem cake

It is a potential source of organic manure , Neem has demonstrated considerable potential as a fertilizer.

Composition of Neem Cake

Neem cake has an adequate quantity of NPK in organic form for plant growth. Being a totally botanical product it contains 100% natural NPK content and other essential micro nutrients as N(Nitrogen 2.0% to 5.0%), P(Phosphorus 0.5% to 1.0%), K(Potassium 1.0% to 2.0%), Ca(Calcium 0.5% to 3.0%), Mg(Magnesium 0.3% to 1.0%), S(Sulphur 0.2% to 3.0%), Zn(Zinc 15 ppm to 60 ppm), Cu(Copper 4 ppm to 20 ppm), Fe (Iron 500 ppm to 1200 ppm), Mn (Manganese 20 ppm to 60 ppm). It is rich in both sulphur compounds and bitter limonoids.

According to research calculations, neem cake seems to make soil more fertile due to an ingredient that blocks soil bacteria from converting nitrogenous compounds into nitrogen gas. It is a nitrification inhibitor and prolongs the availability of nitrogen to both short duration and long duration crops.

Use as a fertilizer

Neem cake organic manure protects plant roots from nematodes, soil grubs and white ants probably due to its residual limonoid content. It also acts as a natural fertilizer with pesticidal properties. Neem cake is widely used in India to fertilize paddy, cotton and sugarcane. Usage of neem cake have shown an increase in the dry matter in Tectona grandis (Teak), Acacia nilotica (Gum Arabic), and other forest trees.

Neem seed cake also reduce alkalinity in soil, as it produces organic acids on decomposition. Being totally natural, it is compatible with soil microbes, improves and rhizosphere microflora and hence ensures fertility of the soil. Neem cake improves the organic matter content of the soil, helping improve soil texture, water holding capacity, and soil aeration for better root development.

Used as Pest control

Neem cake is effective in the management of insects and pests. The bitter principles of the soil and cake have been reported to have seven types of activities

  1. antifeedant
  2. attractant
  3. repellent
  4. insecticide
  5. nematicide
  6. growth disruptor
  7. antimicrobial.

The cake contains salannin, nimbin, azadirachtin and azadiradione as the major components. Of these, azadirachtin and meliantriol are used as locust antifeedants while salannin is used as an antifeedant for the housefly.